Entrance to Kiva at Edge of the Cedars State Park, Blanding, Utah
Sticking with the topic of the small round rooms traditionally called “kivas,” which Steve Lekson would prefer to call simply “round rooms,” it’s important to note that there is a wide variety of formal types. In addition to the modern distinction between square and round kivas, which is basically geographical with square ones in the western pueblos and round ones in the eastern pueblos, and setting aside the highly specialized “great kivas,” among the prehistoric kivas (I’m going to stick with the traditional term for now) of the San Juan Basin there are at least two types. In his writings on Chacoan architecture, Lekson has distinguished between two main types of kivas found in great houses at Chaco: “Chacoan” and “Non-Chacoan.”
Kiva Z, Pueblo Bonito
The type of kiva that Lekson defines as “Chacoan” (originally defined by Neil Judd, who excavated Pueblo Bonito and Pueblo del Arroyo in the 1920s) has a variety of standard features, especially in the later examples from the period of approximately AD 1075 to 1130 when the Chaco system was at its height. They are not quite as standardized as Chacoan great kivas, but the features associated with them are nevertheless found wherever there is evidence for Chacoan influence during this period, and it seems clear that this particular suite of features is a specifically Chacoan development. (These kivas have often been called “clan kivas” in the past, but I don’t like that term because of the huge assumptions it makes about social organization and kiva function, so I’m just going to call them “Chacoan kivas.”) The standard features defined by Judd are:
- A central firepit
- A subfloor ventilation system with an opening south of the firepit leading to a shaft opening south of the kiva
- A subfloor “vault” west of the firepit
- A bench around the circumference of the kiva
- 6 to 10 low “pilasters” roughly evenly spaced around the bench
- A shallow recess in the bench at the southern end
Lekson adds two more features, which are certainly present in many Chacoan kivas but less universal than Judd’s and more controversial:
- The elevation of the kiva into an aboveground square enclosure
- “Wainscoting” around the edge of the bench
This set of features is certainly consistent with the general “San Juan” type of kiva that developed out of the Basketmaker pithouse, but it differs from the kivas found most commonly in areas like Mesa Verde to the north in a few ways. Before going into the differences, though, I want to just explain the importance of the lists of features given by Judd and Lekson.
Kiva Firepit at Lowry Pueblo in Colorado
Firepit: All kivas have firepits; it is one of the defining characteristics of the form. In Chacoan kivas specifically, the firepit is offset slightly to the south of the center point of the kiva, which is always circular. Firepits in Chacoan kivas are deep, circular or square in plan, and usually lined with masonry.
Subfloor Ventilation Shaft in Kiva at Edge of the Cedars State Park, Blanding, Utah
Ventilation System: One major characteristic of San Juan small kivas in general is that they have ventilation shafts, usually at the southern end. Jesse Walter Fewkes wrote an article in 1908, which I mentioned in an earlier post, in which he set forth an argument that these shafts were indeed for ventilation rather than for any other purpose, and this argument is now more or less universally accepted. There are different types of ventilation system, however, and this is one of the major features distinguishing Chacoan kivas from other types. Chacoan kivas have ventilation shafts that run underneath the floor of the kiva and are accordingly called “subfloor” ventilation shafts. One end of the shaft opens vertically into the floor just south of the firepit, and there may or may not be a slab or low wall in between used as a deflector to distribute the air and shelter the fire. From this opening the shaft runs down a short distance then turns and runs horizontally to the south underneath the floor (or as a shallow trough that would have been covered by boards or poles) until it gets past the southern wall, at which point it turns again and runs vertically upward until it reaches the ground surface (at the level of the kiva roof, but just to the south of it) and opens up to provide the source for fresh air.
Great Kiva at Chetro Ketl Showing Floor Vault
Floor Vault: Most Chacoan kivas have a single rectangular “box” sunk into the floor just to the west of the firepit. These are often filled and plastered-over, and sometimes have boards covering them, so Lekson notes that this feature may actually be more widespread than it appears from the literature (since excavators may have missed covered vaults in some cases). Since about three-quarters of excavated Chacoan kivas had evidence of vaults, this suggestion implies that these may have been nearly or literally universal in actual fact. These vaults are reminiscent of the similar “vaults” known from Chacoan great kivas, although its unclear why there would be different numbers of them. In both great and small kivas the function of the vaults is obscure. The fact that they sometimes have wooden boards on them has led some to argue that they were “foot drums” that people would have danced on to create a drumming sound, but Lekson points out that they are often filled with sand, which makes this explanation implausible.
Chacoan Kiva at Aztec Ruins National Monument
Bench: There is a low masonry bench around the circumference of the room. This is another standard feature of San Juan kivas in general, although the bench is not always made of masonry in non-Chacoan versions.
Kiva Pilasters at Pueblo Del Arroyo
Pilasters: At roughly equal intervals around the bench there is a series of “pilasters.” This term comes from Mesa Verde kivas where the pilasters are often tall and made of masonry, and it is not as applicable to Chacoan kivas where the defining feature of a “pilaster” is a short segment of a wooden log oriented radially with one end set in the wall just above the bench. These beams are often set in small masonry cubes which do somewhat resemble Mesa Verdean pilasters and imply a similar function. Mesa Verdean pilasters typically serve to support a cribbed roof, and Chacoan pilasters have often been interpreted similarly, although Lekson disagrees with this interpretation. The issue of roofing is discussed more fully below under “wainscoting.”
Kiva I at Pueblo Bonito Showing Southern Recess
Recess: At the south end of the bench there is a shallow “recess” in which the bench narrows. The location of the recess corresponds to the location of the subfloor vent shaft, but since the vent shaft is underground it does not actually have anything to do with the recess (this is another difference from Mesa Verdean kivas, which have above-floor vent shafts that open into the recess, which is often more prominent). There is some evidence that at least in some cases there may have been a shelf over the recess, which would have continued the line of the bench and created a large niche under it. The purpose of this recess is obscure.
Southern Recess in Kiva at Pueblo del Arroyo
Those are the criteria Judd gives, and they are pretty universally accepted and uncontroversial. Lekson adds two more, which are a bit more controversial.
Corner of Room Containing Blocked-In Kiva at Tsin Kletzin
Elevation and Blocking-In: The early examples of Chacoan kivas at Chaco great houses, dating from around AD 900 to 1070, are generally subterranean and usually located in the plazas of great houses, backed by suites of rectangular rooms. The “classic” examples of Chacoan kivas, dating from about 1075 to 1130, are generally built into square rooms within the great-house roomblocks, usually on the first floor but occasionally on the second. Lekson considers this tendency to “block-in” kivas a key part of the Chacoan kiva tradition, and in his 2007 chapter on great house form he goes into some detail on the historical development of the Chacoan kiva, starting with the early tenth-century examples, which are poorly known, and continuing through what he refers to as “transitional” Chacoan kivas, built between 1030 and 1070, only a few of which have been excavated. The best known of these is Kiva G-5 at Chetro Ketl, which was later covered over by later kiva construction culminating in an elevated “classic” Chacoan kiva (Kiva G) but is still kept open and visible underneath the later construction. These transitional kivas had most of the characteristics of later elevated kivas, and by Judd’s standards they would all be considered just Chacoan kivas. Lekson makes a big deal about the blocking-in, however, and it is true that this is something that markedly distinguishes Chacoan kivas from other types. No one else did this, and it’s very odd in a structural sense since those huge masonry cylinders needed extensive support, which often meant the “interstitial” rooms in the corners of the square room were braced with timbers or filled in with earth. One problem with using this as a defining characteristic of Chacoan kivas, though, is that there are a few late, very large Chacoan kivas that are subterranean and located in plazas rather than being blocked-in. These approach great-kiva size, but they lack the features of great kivas. The best known of these is the Court Kiva at Chetro Ketl, which was later remodeled into a great kiva. Only two other examples have been excavated, Kiva R at Pueblo Bonito and Kiva J at the Talus Unit. Kiva R has standard Chacoan kiva features, whereas Kiva J was only partially excavated and little is known about its features. Five additional kivas like this are known at Pueblo Bonito, and Lekson describes them as unexcavated, although at least two or three of them clearly seem to have been excavated as far as I can tell and they seem to have typical Chacoan kiva features, so I’m not sure what Lekson’s talking about when he says they’re unexcavated. Indeed, one of these, Kiva O, is still visible in the east plaza. (Kiva R, which is in the west plaza, is also visible.) The fact that some of the largest Chacoan kivas are subterranean and in the plazas of great houses rather than elevated and blocked in makes Lekson’s use of blocking-in as a standard attribute of Chacoan kivas problematic, even just looking at the “classic” Chacoan kivas built after 1075.
Kiva L, Pueblo Bonito
Wainscoting: This is the most controversial of Lekson’s criteria for Chacoan kiva status. Basically, many of the excavated Chacoan kivas have a series of thin wooden poles (or, less often, boards) rising from the back of the bench and leaning in toward the center of the ceiling. Between them is a sort of wickerwork held together with clay or adobe (i.e., a sort of wattle-and-daub or jacal), plastered with mud on the interior side. The space behind this wickerwork is either left open or filled in with trash or other vegetal material (Lekson’s account is unclear here). Lekson claims that this “wainscoting,” supported by the poles, formed the ceiling of the kiva, sort of a false dome, with the exterior roof at the top being supported by horizontal beams much like those used in the roofing of standard square rooms. This is in contrast to the standard way that Mesa Verde kivas were roofed, which was also a false dome but one made of cribbed logs beginning on the pilasters and alternating rows up to the roof. (This is the way Navajo hogans are traditionally roofed as well.) Some examples of intact roofs like this are reported in the Mesa Verde region, including one at Square Tower House that Fewkes used as the basis for interpreting and reconstructing the roofs of kivas at Spruce Tree House, which had not survived intact. There is at least one kiva at Pueblo Bonito that also had a largely intact cribbed roof (Kiva L). It has often been assumed that most Chacoan kivas, including the blocked-in ones, also had cribbed roofs resting on the pilasters, but it’s noteworthy that Kiva L is not blocked-in, although it does otherwise show classic Chacoan features, and that Kiva 67, another plaza kiva with classic Chacoan features, also showed evidence of having a cribbed roof through the impression of a log in clay spanning two pilasters, although the log itself did not survive. It’s possible, then, that the development of “wainscoting” as a means to roof kivas was an innovation spurred by the building of kivas in square rooms, which could easily be given flat roofs like other square rooms, although it’s not really clear what the advantage of wainscoting over cribbing would have been. It would probably have used less timber, but the Chacoans were hardly averse to importing huge quantities of timber and it’s hard to see them making decisions about architecture based on efficient use of resources. Chacoan kiva roofing remains an open question.
Cribbed Kiva Roof at Edge of the Cedars State Park, Blanding, Utah
Kivas are particularly vulnerable to deterioration if they are left open to the elements, so all of the small kivas at Chaco that have been excavated have been subsequently backfilled to varying degrees. Many have been filled entirely, so that no trace of them remains on the surface; this is the case with the Court Kiva at Chetro Ketl and many of the plaza kivas at Pueblo Bonito. Others have only been refilled partly, in some cases to a low level so that the bench and pilasters are still visible and in other cases to a higher level so that only the upper parts of the wall can be seen. Thus, there is nowhere at Chaco where the floor features of a Chacoan kiva can be seen. This is in contrast to Mesa Verde, where especially at the cliff dwellings like Spruce Tree House many well-preserved kivas in sheltered locations have their floors open to be examined. Those are generally Mesa Verde-style kivas, of course, rather than Chacoan ones. The best example I know of a basically Chacoan small kiva where the floor features can be seen is the reconstructed blocked-in kiva at Edge of the Cedars State Park in Blanding, Utah. This is an outlying great house that is much more modest than what you see at Chaco, but one of its kivas has been given a restored cribbed roof and other reconstructed elements to give a sense of what it would have likely looked like in its prime, and as it happens this kiva shows most elements of the Chacoan style despite being far from Chaco itself and in the Mesa Verde region. Also in the same region, one of the kivas at Lowry Pueblo has not been totally reconstructed to the same extent but it does have a protective roof over it and so also has its floor features open. This is another blocked-in kiva at an outlier far to the north that is nonetheless a good example of classic Chacoan kiva design.
Fewkes, J. (1908). Ventilators in Ceremonial Rooms of Pre Historic Cliff-Dwellings American Anthropologist, 10 (3), 387-398 DOI: 10.1525/aa.1908.10.3.02a00020
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